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- This article is about the programming language. For its website, see Scratch Website.
Scratch is a free educational block-based programming language that was developed by the Lifelong Kindergarten Group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) with over 76 million registered users and 84 million shared projects. The current version, 3.0, can be accessed with the online editor here or downloaded here (the previous version, Scratch 2.0, can be downloaded here). It is geared towards kids ages to 8-16.
Scratch is designed to be fun, educational, and easy to learn. It has tools for creating interactive stories, games, art, simulations, and more, using block-based programming. Scratch also has its own paint editor and sound editor built-in.
Users program in Scratch by dragging blocks from the block palette and attaching them to other blocks like a jigsaw puzzle. Structures of multiple blocks are called scripts. This method of programming (building code with blocks) is referred to as "drag-and-drop programming".
- Main article: Scratch Versions
Scratch began development in 2003 and was released to the public in 2007. The idea behind Scratch was inspired by work in the Computer Clubhouse where children wanted to created interactive stories, games, and animations but there were no tools that were right for them. The Lifelong Kindergarten Group was also inspired by Logo and EToys. Scratch 1.0, the first version, was very similar to Scratch 1.4. At that time, only the offline editor existed; the website was a small blog where projects could be uploaded and played. As Scratch grew, the website was made larger. Scratch 1.1, Scratch 1.2, Scratch 1.3, and Scratch 1.4 were released. At this point, Scratch had millions of users, projects, and a lot of new features.
Because of the large expansion of the Scratch community, the Scratch Foundation has expanded and it has lead the design, development, and support of Scratch since March 12th, 2019. MIT will continue to collaborate closely with the Scratch Foundation.
Scratch is widely used in schools around the world as a means of introducing basic computer programming to children. It is also used outside of schools. Some teachers even use Teacher Accounts to monitor students while having fun in the Scratch Community. Children and even adults gain an understanding of the fundamentals of programming with Scratch and often move on to other programming languages. During their use of Scratch, people can create, remix, and collaborate with others on Scratch projects.
- Main article: Scratch User Interface
In designing the language, the creators' main priority was to make the language and development environment simple, intuitive, and easily learnable by children who had no previous programming experience. There is a strong contrast between the powerful multimedia functions and multi-threaded programming style and the rather limited scope of the Scratch programming language.
The user interface for the Scratch development environment divides the screen into several panes: on the left is the blocks palette, in the middle the scripts area, and on the right the stage and sprite list. The blocks palette has code fragments (called "blocks") that can be dragged onto the scripts area from the palette to make programs. To keep the palette organized and for ease of use, it is organized into nine groups of blocks: motion, looks, sound, control, events, sensing, operators, variables, and more blocks.
Origin of the Word
"Scratch" was used as the title for The Lifelong Kindergarten Group's programming language, as it is to do with "scratching" referring to music.
|“||Scratching is a DJ or turntablist technique used to produce distinctive sounds by moving a vinyl record back and forth on a turntable while optionally manipulating the crossfader on a DJ mixer.||”|
Likewise, within Scratch, you take different bits of code (blocks), put them together, and have made something new.
|“||We take the name "Scratch," from the way that hip-hop disk jockeys scratch with music. They take pieces of music and then combine them together in unexpected and creative ways.||”|
– Mitchell Resnick, Lifelong Kindergarten Group at MIT
Variants of the Word
The word "Scratch" has spawned other phrases that have become popular amongst users of Scratch:
- New Scratcher — A user who has the New Scratcher status
- Scratcher — A user of Scratch
- Scratching — A verb which means to use Scratch
- Scratched — A project that is an attempted replica of another game. e.g. "Pac-man Scratched"
- Scratch Time — The timezone that the forums are set in (EST/EDT)
- Scratch Team — The moderators and developers of the website.
- Scratch On! — A phrase coined by the Scratch Team, and used by them (although has been adapted by other Scratchers as well) to encourage users, meaning "carry on using Scratch"
Scratch's motto is "Imagine, Program, Share". This follows the basic principle of creating a project: one comes up with an idea ("Imagine"), programs the idea in Scratch ("Program"), and then publishes it in the community ("Share").
- Main article: Scratch Versions
Scratch is currently on version 3.0. The online editor was officially released on January 2, 2019, and the offline editor at a later date. Its predecessor is Scratch 2.0, which was released on May 9, 2013. The previous, older versions are Scratch 1.4, Scratch 1.3, Scratch 1.2, Scratch 1.1, and Scratch 1.0. Each version had significant changes, especially the jump from 2.0 to 3.0. Not only did the program update with version 2.0 and 3.0, but the entire website was redone.
- Scratch is Turing complete.
- It is primarily event-driven.
- Whether or not it is OOP is debated in the community.
- Scratch has variables and lists for data storage, and arrays can be replicated.
- Scratch is not atomic in repetition, though that can be simulated with Single Frame programming.
- Scratch 2.0 onwards supports procedures, and recursion.
- Scratch has many simplified casting rules. Data is not, however, first-class — there are no first-class lists, sprites, or procedures (lambda).
Scratch has limited hardware/OS access and is a very safe program. The following can be accessed by Scratch:
- Ambient volume
- Mouse position relative to the Scratch frame
- Key presses, only if Scratch is in focus
- In Scratch 3.0, some movements are provided as sensor values, using a webcam for image input.
- The filesystem can be accessed while in development, but not while running.
- Scratch can communicate externally to a Lego WeDo, Lego Mindstorms EV3, Makey Makey, Micro:bit, or Go Direct Force & Acceleration set.
Scratch Modifications may offer more OS permissions.
- Main article: ScratchJr
ScratchJr is a programming language based on Scratch that utilizes visual-centric content to introduce 5 to 7 year olds (its intended audience) to the programming world. It was developed in part by some members of the Scratch Team, and it is available on iOS and Android as a mobile app.
- Scratch worked with Cartoon Network to promote We Bare Bears by creating project tutorials and templates related to the show. Scratch's place on the Cartoon Network website was available here.[dead link]
- Scratch was renamed Neigh temporarily due to an April Fools Joke played by Scratch Team in 2012 as a 2.0 release joke. There were also several references incorporated from the show My Little Pony. More information is available here.
- At one point, Scratch had a higher concentration of projects using the Scratch Cat, because of ScratchCation in 2016. The Scratch Team displayed a said note from Scratch Cat on Scratch, contributing to a widespread event.
- Getting Started with Scratch
- Scratch 1.4 — the 2009 version of the Scratch website and program
- Scratch 2.0 — the previous version of the Scratch website and program
- Scratch 3.0 — the current version of the Scratch website and program
- Scratch on Wikipedia — the description of Scratch on an external website
- Scratch Timeline
- Scratch Wiki
- Programming Language — what they are and their uses to the world of computer science
- mres. (23/1/2021). "We were inspired, in part, by our work at the Computer Clubhouse after-school centers. We saw that kids there wanted to created their own interactive stories, games, and animations, but there were no tools that were right for them. Also, we were inspired by some some existing programming languages for kids (Logo and EToys). We borrowed lots of ideas from those languages, but added our own ideas (a type of remixing!) to create Scratch." users:mres/#comments-116963575